The deadlift is the most literal form of “lifting weight.” You are simply taking a heavy weight from the ground, grasping it firmly, and picking it up. Simple as that. The deadlift is one of the most effective exercises for building raw strength, firing up your metabolism, and stimulating muscle growth. Additionally, it is one of the most effective exercises that newbies can learn to reinforce the importance of maintaining good form.
If all of this is true then why are so few beginner-intermediate lifters doing deadlifts? Well that’s because the deadlift has a bad reputation for hurting backs, but don’t worry because that reputation is undeserved. The problem is that the deadlift is the lift that most people are able to start pulling some big weight with and, inevitably, the ego gets involved and they do more than they can safely. It’s different with the squat and bench press, when things get too heavy you have the fear of that weight coming down on top of you to keep you in check. The deadlift doesn’t stimulate that fear and so people are more likely to just keep pulling heavier and sacrifice good form in the process.
So with that said let’s start with what a good deadlift looks like. For the purpose of this article we are going to focus primarily on the conventional barbell deadlift. We will briefly go over how to change your approach for dumbbell, and kettlebell deadlifts towards the end.
The deadlift is a very powerful exercise for very powerful people. As I stated earlier, the deadlift is usually the first exercise that people can start to pull some large weight with. As such, it can easily become an ego driven lift.
For the first few years of my deadlift practice I was infatuated with how much I was able to pull without prior training (I was able to hit 225 lbs for 6-9 reps within a month of learning how to deadlift). I wanted to push my deadlift as hard as I could. Within a few months I was pulling 315 lbs for 3-6 reps regularly. What amazing progress!
Unfortunately, my obsession with increasing the weight took priority over emphasizing a solid set up, and executing a good pull. I pulled the weight with an extremely rounded back that I tried to keep in check with a weightlifting belt and attached the weight to my hands with the aid of lifting straps. Eventually I hit a wall and couldn’t pass 315 pounds and even started to regress. I stubborning kept pulling 315 pounds and eventually my back had had it. I was forced to spend the next few months without any heavy lifting and to be in pain any time I lifted my legs.
Needless to say, I learned my lesson and began to respect the deadlift. I started over with a small 65 pounds and focused on pulling with solid mechanics instead of heavy weight. I lost the weightlifting belt and the straps, making sure that I didn’t have any crutches to mask bad habits. At the time of writing this it has been 2 years since my back injury and I recently pulled 455 pounds for 6 singles in under 10 minutes without the use of a belt or straps. My back wasn’t even sore the following days.
Photos from the Jack Katz Memorial Strong Man Competition, Courtesy of stu_spivack
The deadlift begins with the weight resting on the floor, typically the bar is elevated by the weight plates. If you’re not using any plates yet simply use something to elevate the bar 6-9 inches above the ground. This can be done with yoga blocks, stacking plates up on either side to rest the bar on, some racks have low hooks for such occasions.
Sink down like you’re going to go for a vertical jump but don’t jump. Now stand up and note the position of your feet. This is likely going to be your ideal deadlift foot arrangement. I like this test because it allows people to discover the foot position they intuitively assume when trying to generate a large amount of power.
Approach the bar and position your feet such that half of your foot is in front of the bar and the other half behind. Now you know your ideal foot placement and position.
Grip and Starting Position
In very general terms there are two set up techniques for getting into the starting position.
The first is the standing set up. Start by positioning your feet underneath the bar. Inhale sharply while pulling your shoulders back and contract your core tightly. This will activate your back muscles and brace your spine. Next, hinge at your hips to bring your torso down and grasp the bar, your hands should be positioned just outside your legs. Once you have a firm grip on the bar pull your knees forward and bring your butt down, while positioning your shoulders directly over the bar.
The second is the bottoms-up set up. Start by positioning your feet underneath the bar. Reach down and grasp the bar firmly, your hands should be positioned just outside your legs. Position your shoulders directly over the bar and take a deep inhale. As you exhale imagine you are trying to bend the bar to wrap around your ankles and pull your back flat. Remember to keep your shoulders over the bar.
While the set up is the most important part of the deadlift, the pull is where the magic happens.
To start, you will need to remove the ‘slack’ from the bar. From your set up position tighten your lats (imagine bending the bar around your ankles) and pull yourself down towards the ground. If you pause and hold this position you should feel as though every muscle in your body is tight and braced, especially your back muscles. Next, ‘break’ the bar from the ground by pushing with your legs, think as if you are trying to push the ground away from you. Once the bar is at or above your knees drive your hips forward by contracting your glutes forcefully, imagine someone is about to kick you in the bum.
From here you should be in the top position. To return to the bottom position lead with pushing your hips back and lower the weight along your thighs towards your knees. When the weight is just about to your knees you can start bending the knees to complete the lowering portion of the exercise. Alternatively, you can just drop the weight but you do miss out on the eccentric portion of the deadlift and risk becoming “That Guy” at your gym.
During the pull it is important to keep the weight close to your body. Typically, when people are starting out they have this tendency to hold the bar 6-8 inches away from their body. This causes unnecessary stress on the shoulders and is incorrect. Try to keep the bar as close to your body as comfortably possible.
Using Dumbbells and/or Kettlebells
You may not always have access to barbells, or you may be new at deadlifts and don’t want to start with a 45 lb barbell. In any case, do not worry! Performing deadlifts with dumbbells and kettlebells is very similar to performing them with a barbell and just requires a small change in your set up.
Set up: Grab both of your dumbbells and assume a standing braced position. Place your hands over your hips such that when you lower your weights they track down your thighs. Pull your shoulders back and keep your elbows locked and arms straight throughout the movement.
Lowering: Pull your hips back and begin lowering the weight along your thighs. When the weights reach your knees push your legs forward to complete the lowering process. The weights do not need to touch the ground, go as low as comfortable before beginning the pull.
The Pull: From the bottom position make sure your shoulders are over the weights and your shoulders pulled back. Start by pushing the ground away with your legs. Once the dumbbells are at you knees thrust your hips forward to complete the pull.
Set up: Start with your feet in the starting position described previously. Place the kettlebell between your feet. Set up using one of the protocols described for the barbell deadlift. The only difference is that you hands are between your legs instead of outside.
The Pull: Position your shoulders directly above the kettlebell and tighten your lats by trying to bend the handle. Push the ground away with your legs until the body of the kettlebell is level with your knees. Next, thrust your hips forward to complete the pull (Guys, don’t thrust any sensitive equipment forcefully into the kettlebell).
You may notice that in the Squat and Bench Press sections of the “Getting Started” section there were a lot of mobilizations and introductory exercises, and these are not in the Deadlift section. The reason for this is that most people have the prerequisite mobility to accomplish a decent deadlift and there isn’t a need for an introductory exercise. The deadlift is easily scaled to any weight that is needed. The more important aspect of the deadlift is to focus on a good setup, a solid pull, and practice, practice, practice.
If you’re new at the deadlift then try to train it at 1-3x per week for 3-5 sets of 4-6 reps. Start at a weight you’re comfortable with and stay there until you can perform at least 5 sets of 6 reps while maintaining a flat back throughout all reps. Once you have the form down you can start to increase the weight incrementally, I suggest adding 5-10 lbs every time you can successfully complete 6 perfect reps in one set. Keep the number of reps per set low as this will enable you to maintain a flat back much easier.